**Unit 5 Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow two mark question and answers**

1.Derivation of the Theory 2. Idealizing actual problem to approximate finite element problem 3. Computer program development for applying finite element theory 4. Investigation of date information processing and numerical methods needed to compute finite element solution The major assumption on which the development is based should be understood and known to the engineers applying finite element method. Significance of approximation assumed and built in the method and the limitations of the analytical models developed should be known. This knowledge in finite element method reveals the difference between the good and bad disaster

Finite Element Method is numerical method employed for obtaining solutions to Engineering and Mathematical Physics field.

In Engineering 1 Structural analysis 2 heat transfer 3 Fluid flows 4 Mass transfers 5 Electromagnetic potential.

Application of this FEM analysis in . Design of Automobiles 2. Air frames 3. High rise building 4. Space crafts 5. Heat engines 6. Electric motors 7. Bearing ….etc

Analytical solution is a mathematical expression that gives the values of desired unknown quantity at any location in a body.

Due to the 1 Complicated Geometry 2 Complicated Loadings 3 Complicated Material properties

At least Approximate Solutions. But it is accepted solution for complicated problems arise in engineering structural analysis.

overcome this method or alternative technique called NUMERICAL Methods used to find At least Approximate Solutions. But it is accepted solution for complicated problems arise in engineering structural analysis. Discretization or Finite element zing and their type 1. Variational method or Rayleigh –Ritz method 2. Weighted residual methods 3. Finite element method

Due to the 1 Complicated Geometry 2 Complicated Loadings 3 Complicated Material properties It is very difficult or not at all possible to get solutions or cent percent correct solutions are not possible some times in engineering problems practically by analytical methods. To overcome this method or alternative technique called NUMERICAL Methods used to find

Due to the 1 Complicated Geometry 2 Complicated Loadings 3 Complicated Material properties It is very difficult or not at all possible to get solutions or cent percent correct solutions are not possible some times in engineering problems practically by analytical methods. To overcome this method or alternative technique called NUMERICAL Methods used to find

A complex problem (region of continuing or Domain) - is discretized in to simple problems (i.e. Into simple geometric shapes or subdomains ). These spilited domains are interconnected at some critical points. Sub domains = finite elements Inter connected points = nodal points or simply nodes

The material properties and 2. Governing relationships’ (applied force and resultant displacement etc.) These two things are imposed on the sub domains (finite elements) and suitable simultaneous equations are formed for all elements. The solutions of these equations give the approximate behaviors of the continuum (domain)The sum of the elemental solutions will provide the required approximate solution for the whole domain or system. FEM / FEA processes involve three stages of activity 1. PREPROCESSING 2. PROCESSING 3. POST PROCESSING. PREPROCESSING - PREPARATION OF DATA (nodal co-ordinates, connectivity, boundary conditions, loading and material information) PROCESSING – STIFFNESS GENERATION, STIFFNESS MODIFICATION AND SOLUTION OF EQUATION, RESULTING IN THE EVALUATION OF NODAL VARIABLES. DERIVED QUANTITIES LIKE GRADIENTS OR STRESSES EVALUATED. POST PROCESSING - PRESENTATION OF RESULTS. DEFORMED CONFIGURATION, STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS, TEMPERATURES ETC. ARE COMPUTED AND DISPLAYED.

1.Derivation of the Theory 2. Idealizing actual problem to approximate finite element problem 3. Computer program development for applying finite element theory 4. Investigation of date information processing and numerical methods needed to compute finite element solution The major assumption on which the development is based should be understood and known to the engineers applying finite element method. Significance of approximation assumed and built in the method and the limitations of the analytical models developed should be known. This knowledge in finite element method reveals the difference between the good and bad disaster

Finite Element Method is numerical method employed for obtaining solutions to Engineering and Mathematical Physics field.

In Engineering 1 Structural analysis 2 heat transfer 3 Fluid flows 4 Mass transfers 5 Electromagnetic potential.

Application of this FEM analysis in . Design of Automobiles 2. Air frames 3. High rise building 4. Space crafts 5. Heat engines 6. Electric motors 7. Bearing ….etc

Analytical solution is a mathematical expression that gives the values of desired unknown quantity at any location in a body.

Due to the 1 Complicated Geometry 2 Complicated Loadings 3 Complicated Material properties

At least Approximate Solutions. But it is accepted solution for complicated problems arise in engineering structural analysis.

overcome this method or alternative technique called NUMERICAL Methods used to find At least Approximate Solutions. But it is accepted solution for complicated problems arise in engineering structural analysis. Discretization or Finite element zing and their type 1. Variational method or Rayleigh –Ritz method 2. Weighted residual methods 3. Finite element method

Due to the 1 Complicated Geometry 2 Complicated Loadings 3 Complicated Material properties It is very difficult or not at all possible to get solutions or cent percent correct solutions are not possible some times in engineering problems practically by analytical methods. To overcome this method or alternative technique called NUMERICAL Methods used to find

Due to the 1 Complicated Geometry 2 Complicated Loadings 3 Complicated Material properties It is very difficult or not at all possible to get solutions or cent percent correct solutions are not possible some times in engineering problems practically by analytical methods. To overcome this method or alternative technique called NUMERICAL Methods used to find

A complex problem (region of continuing or Domain) - is discretized in to simple problems (i.e. Into simple geometric shapes or subdomains ). These spilited domains are interconnected at some critical points. Sub domains = finite elements Inter connected points = nodal points or simply nodes

The material properties and 2. Governing relationships’ (applied force and resultant displacement etc.) These two things are imposed on the sub domains (finite elements) and suitable simultaneous equations are formed for all elements. The solutions of these equations give the approximate behaviors of the continuum (domain)The sum of the elemental solutions will provide the required approximate solution for the whole domain or system. FEM / FEA processes involve three stages of activity 1. PREPROCESSING 2. PROCESSING 3. POST PROCESSING. PREPROCESSING - PREPARATION OF DATA (nodal co-ordinates, connectivity, boundary conditions, loading and material information) PROCESSING – STIFFNESS GENERATION, STIFFNESS MODIFICATION AND SOLUTION OF EQUATION, RESULTING IN THE EVALUATION OF NODAL VARIABLES. DERIVED QUANTITIES LIKE GRADIENTS OR STRESSES EVALUATED. POST PROCESSING - PRESENTATION OF RESULTS. DEFORMED CONFIGURATION, STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS, TEMPERATURES ETC. ARE COMPUTED AND DISPLAYED.